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Calculates linkage disequilibrium (LD) and generates a static plot using ggplot2 graphics.


  ldType = c("All", "SlidingWindow"),
  windowSize = NULL,
  hetCalls = c("missing", "ignore", "third"),
  plotVal = c("r2", "DPrime", "pDiseq"),
  verbose = TRUE



An object of class TasselGenotypePenotype. That contains a genotype table.


How do you want LD calculated? Currently, the available options are "All" and "SlidingWindow". If All is selected, LD will be calculated for every combination of sites in the alignment (NOTE: this may produce a massive series of combinations; use only on heavily filtered genotype tables). If SlidingWindow is selected, LD will be calculated for sites within a window of sites surrounding the current site. Defaults to "All".


What size do you want your LD analysis window? If you have chosen SlidingWindow for the ldType parameter, you will need to specify window size.


How should heterozygous calls be handled? Current options are "ignore" (ignore altogether), "missing" (set to missing), and "third" (treat as third state).


What LD value do you want to plot? Options are:

  • r2: \(r^{2}\) (Default parameter)

  • DPrime: \(D'\)

  • pDiseq: p-value


Display messages? Defaults to TRUE.


Returns a ggplot2 object.


Linkage disequilibrium between any set of polymorphisms can be estimated by initially filtering a genotype dataset and then using this function. At this time, \(D'\), \(r^{2}\) and P-values will be estimated. The current version calculates LD between haplotypes with known phase only (unphased diploid genotypes are not supported; see PowerMarker or Arlequin for genotype support).

  • \(D'\) is the standardized disequilibrium coefficient, a useful statistic for determining whether recombination or homoplasy has occurred between a pair of alleles.

  • \(r^{2}\) represents the correlation between alleles at two loci, which is informative for evaluating the resolution of association approaches.

\(D'\) and \(r^{2}\) can be calculated when only two alleles are present. If more than two alleles, only the two most frequent alleles are used. P-values are determined by a two-sided Fisher's Exact test is calculated. Since LD is meaningless when scored with very small sample sizes, a minimum of 20 taxa must be present to calculate LD and there must be 2 or more minor alleles.